NOTICE: State immunity laws listed below are specifically designed to allow insurers and others to share information related to insurance fraud investigations. Other statutes may be in effect governing general immunity for good-faith reporting of all crimes. This information is provided for informational purposes only and should not replace competent legal advice.

  Specific Immunity for Reporting to:
StateInsurer to Insurer ImmunityLaw EnforcementFraud BureauNAICNICB
Alaska
 
X
X
X
X
Arizona
 
 
X
 
 
Arkansas
X
X
X
 
 
California
 
 
X
 
 
Colorado
X
X
 
 
 
Connecticut
 
X
 
 
 
Delaware
X
X
X
X
X
D.C.
X
X
X
 
 
Florida
X
X
X
X
X
Georgia
 
X
X
X
 
Hawaii
X
X
X
X
 
Idaho
X
X
X
X
X
Illinois
 
X
 
 
 
Indiana
X
X
 
X
 
Iowa
X
X
X
X
X
Kansas
X
X
X
 
 
Kentucky
 
 
X
 
 
Louisiana
 
 
X
X
X
Maine
 
X
 
 
 
Maryland
 
X
X
 
 
Massachusetts
X
X
X
 
 
Michigan
 
X
 
X
 
Minnesota
 
X
 
 
 
Missouri
X
X
X
X
X
Montana
 
 
 
 
 
Nebraska
X
X
X
X
X
Nevada
 
X
X
 
 
New Hampshire
 
 
X
X
 
New Jersey
 
 
X
X
 
New Mexico
X
X
X
X
 
New York
X
X
X
 
 
North Carolina
X
X
X
 
X
North Dakota
 
X
 
X
X
Ohio
X
X
X
X
X
Oklahoma
 
X
X
 
 
Oregon
 
 
 
 
 
Pennsylvania
X
X
X
X
X
Rhode Island
X
X
 
 
 
South Carolina
X
X
X
X
X
South Dakota
X
X
X
X
X
Tennessee (wc)
X
X
X
X
X
Texas
X
X
X
X
 
Utah
 
X
X
 
 
Virginia
X
X
X
X
X
Washington
 
 
 
 
 
West Virginia
X
X
 
 
 
Wisconsin
X
X
X
X
 
Federal Immunity Statute
 
 
 
 
 


ALASKA

Title 21. Insurance.

Chapter 36. Trade Practices and Frauds.

Sec. 21.36.365 Immunity for reports on fraud.

(a) A person is not liable for civil damages for filing a report with or furnishing other information whether written or oral, concerning suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent acts to

(1) law enforcement officials, their agents and employees; (2) the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, thedivision of insurance, an agency in a state that regulatesinsurance, or an organization established to detect and preventfraudulent insurance acts, their agents, employees, or designees.

(b) This section does not preclude liability for civil damages as a result of reckless, willful, or intentional misconduct.

ARIZONA

Title 20. Insurance

Chapter 2. Transaction Of Insurance Business

Article 6. Unfair Practices And Frauds

ß 20-466. Fraud unit; powers; duty of insurer

H. A person, or an officer, employee or agent of the person acting within the scope of employment or agency of that officer, employee or agent, who in good faith files a report or provides other information to the fraud unit pursuant to this section is not subject to civil or criminal liability for reporting that information to the fraud unit.

ARKANSAS

Title 23. Public Utilities And Regulated Industries

Chapter 66. Trade Practices

Subchapter 5. Fraudulent Insurance Acts Prevention

23-66-506 Immunity from liability.

(a) There shall be no civil liability for libel, slander or any other cause of action imposed on, and no cause of action shall arise from a person's furnishing information concerning suspected, anticipated or completed fraudulent insurance acts, if the information is provided to or received from:

(1) The Insurance Commissioner or the commissioner's employees, agents or representatives;

(2) Federal, state, or local law enforcement or regulatoryofficials or their employees, agents, or representatives;

(3) A person employed by or authorized by an insurer whoseactivities include the investigation or reporting of suspectedfraudulent insurance acts when furnishing, disclosing, orrequesting information on such suspected fraudulent insurance actsto or from a person employed by or authorized by other insurers orinsurer organizations acting in the same capacity; or

(4) The National Association of Insurance Commissioners or itsemployees, agents, or representatives.

(b) Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to statements made with actual malice. In an action brought against a person for filing a report or furnishing other information concerning a fraudulent insurance act, the party bringing the action shall plead specifically any allegation that subsection (a) of this section does not apply because the person filing the report or furnishing the information did so with actual malice. (c) This section does not abrogate or modify common law or statutory privileges or immunities enjoyed by a person described in subsection (a) of this section.

CALIFORNIA

Insurance Code

Division 1. General Rules Governing Insurance

Part 2. The Business Of Insurance

Chapter 12. The Insurance Frauds Prevention Act

Article 8. Insurance Fraud Prevention

ß 1879.5. Notice to department of violations; review and follow-up investigations; civil liability; records and information

(a) Any person who believes that a violation of this article has been or is being made may notify the department immediately after discovery of the alleged violation and may send to the department, on a form and in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, the information requested and any additional information relative to the alleged violation as the department may request. The division shall review the reports and select those alleged violations as may require further investigation. It shall then cause an independent examination or evaluation of the facts surrounding the alleged violation to be made to determine the extent, if any, to which fraud, deceit, or intentional misrepresentation of any kind exists.

(b) No person shall be subject to civil liability for libel, violation of privacy, or otherwise by virtue of the filing of reports or furnishing of other information, in good faith and without malice, provided pursuant to this section or requested by the department as a result of the authority conferred upon it by law.

(c) The commissioner may, by regulation, require admitted insurers to keep any records and other information as he or she deems necessary for the effective enforcement of this article.

COLORADO

Title 10. Insurance

Property And Casualty Insurance

Article 4. Property And Casualty Insurance

Part 10. Fraudulent Claims And Arson Information Reporting Act

ß 10-4-1005. Immunity

(1) In the case of actions taken udder this part 10, and except where information is furnished with knowledge that the information is false or with reckless disregard for its truth or falsity, there shall be no civil penalty or damages on the part of, and no, claim for relief shall be brought against, any person, insurer, or authorized agency for furnishing information or other action pursuant to the provisions of this part 10.

(2) Every person, insurer, and authorized agency shall be immune from civil liability when acting in good faith to cooperate with, furnish evidence to or on behalf of, provide information to, or solicit or receive information from, any of the following with regard to an actual or suspected fraudulent insurance act:

(a) an agency

of the federal or any state, county, or municipal government that is involved in the detection, prosecution, or prevention of arson or insurance fraud;

(b) any employee or agent of an agency listed in paragraph (a)of this subsection (2); and

(c) another insurer, if acting in accordance with section10-4-1003(8)(c) solely for the purpose of detecting,investigating, preventing, or prosecuting an actual or suspectedfraudulent insurance act. Information so provided shall not beused for underwriting or rating purposes except in connection withan application or policy under which a fraudulent insurance actwas committed.

(3) Every person, insurer, and authorized agency shall be immune from civil liability when acting in good faith to comply with a court order to provide evidence or testimony with regard to an actual or suspected fraudulent insurance act; except that such immunity shall not apply to a person or insurer that has committed, or has conspired in or aided and abetted the commission of, such fraudulent insurance act.

(4) The immunity granted by this section shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any right, privilege, or immunity available under the common law or any other applicable statute or rule.

CONNECTICUT

Health Insurance Fraud Immunity

Section 53-445(d)

No person shall be subject to liability for libel, slander or any other civil liability in connection with the filing of reports or documents, or furnishing orally or in writing information concerning any suspected, anticipated or alleged insurance fraud, when the reports, documents or information are provided or received in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) or (c) of this section or in accordance with an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction to provide testimony or evidence, unless such person disclosed false information with malice or willful intent to injure any person.

Disclosure of information by insurance company re motor vehicle losses or fraudulent activity. Immunity from liability.

Section 38a-356(c)

In the absence of fraud, malice or criminal act, no insurance company, authorized employee or person who furnished information on behalf of such company or department, shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for any oral or written statement made pursuant to the provisions of this section.

DELAWARE

Title 18, Chapter 24 Section 2409

In the absence of fraud or bad faith, no person shall be subject to civil liability (for libel, slander or any other relevant tort cause of action by virtue of filing reports, without malice, or furnishing other information, written or oral, without malice, required by this chapter or required by the Commissioner under the authority granted in this title), and no civil cause of action of any nature shall rise against such person:

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law-enforcement officials, their agents and employees; or

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insuranceacts furnished to or received from other persons in this title; or

For any such information furnished in reports to the InsuranceDepartment, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners orany organization established to detect and prevent fraudulentinsurance acts, their agents, employees or designees, nor shallthe Commissioner or any employee of the Insurance Department,(acting without malice) in the absence of fraud or bad faith, besubject to civil liability (for libel, slander or any otherrelevant tort) and no civil cause of action of any nature shallarise against such person by virtue of publication of any reportor bulletin related to the official activities or the InsuranceDepartment. Nothing herein is intended to abrogate or modify inany way any common law or statutory privilege or immunityheretofore enjoyed by any person.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Insurance Fraud Prevention and Detection Amendment Act of 1998 Section 125h

(e) No person shall be subject to civil liability for any cause of action, or subject to criminal prosecution, for reporting any suspected insurance fraud if:

(1) The report was made to the Department of Insurance and Securities Regulation, the Metropolitan Police Department, or any other law enforcement authority, or to any insurer, insurance agent, or any other person who collects, reviews, or analyzes information concerning insurance fraud, by any individual or entity suspecting insurance fraud; and

(2) The person or entity reporting the suspected fraud acted without malice when making the report.

FLORIDA

Title Xxxvii. Insurance

Chapter 626. Insurance Field Representatives And Operations

Part X. Unfair Insurance Trade Practices

626.989. Division of Insurance Fraud; definition; investigative, subpoena powers; protection from civil liability; reports to division; division investigator's power to execute warrants and make arrests

(4) (c) In the absence of fraud or bad faith, a person is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort by virtue of filing reports, without malice, or furnishing other information, without malice, required by this section or required by the department or division under the authority granted in this section, and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against such person:

1. For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents, or employees;

2. For any information relating to suspected fraudulentinsurance acts furnished to or received from other persons subjectto the provisions of this chapter; or

3. For any such information furnished in reports to thedepartment, division, the National Insurance Crime Bureau, or theNational Association of Insurance Commissioners.

(d) In addition to the immunity granted in paragraph (c), persons identified as designated employees whose responsibilities include the investigation and disposition of claims relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts may share information relating to persons suspected of committing fraudulent insurance acts with other designated employees employed by the same or other insurers whose responsibilities include the investigation and disposition of claims relating to fraudulent insurance acts, provided the department has been given written notice of the names and job titles of such designated employees prior to such designated employees sharing information. Unless the designated employees of the insurer act in bad faith or in reckless disregard for the rights of any insured, neither the insurer nor its designated employees are civilly liable for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and a civil action does not arise against the insurer or its designated employees:

1. For any information related to suspected fraudulent insurance acts provided to an insurer; or

2. For any information relating to suspected fraudulentinsurance acts provided to the National Insurance Crime Bureau orthe National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Provided, however, that the qualified immunity against civil liability conferred on any insurer or its designated employees shall be forfeited with respect to the exchange or publication of any defamatory information with third persons not expressly authorized by this paragraph to share in such information.

(e) The Insurance Commissioner and any employee or agent of the department or division, when acting without malice and in the absence of fraud or bad faith, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and no civil cause of action of any nature exists against such person by virtue of the execution of official activities or duties of the department under this section or by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities or duties of the department or division under this section.

(f) This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common-law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person.

GEORGIA

Title 33. Insurance

Chapter 1. General Provisions

33-1-16 Investigation of fraudulent insurance act; collection of evidence; immunity from liability; public inspection; enforcement.

(d) (3) In the absence of fraud or bad faith, a person is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort by virtue of filing reports, without malice, or furnishing other information, without malice, required by this Code section or required by the Commissioner under the authority granted in this Code section, and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against such person:

(A) For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents, or employees;

(B) For any such information relating to suspected fraudulentinsurance acts furnished to or received from other persons subjectto the provisions of this title; or

(C) For any such information furnished in reports to theCommissioner or the National Association of InsuranceCommissioners.

(4) The Commissioner or any employee or agent is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and no civil cause of action of any nature exists against such persons by virtue of the execution of activities or duties of the Commissioner under this Code section or by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the activities or duties of the Commissioner under this Code section.

(5) This Code section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person.

HAWAII

Section 431:10C — 307.7(d)

(d) A person, if acting without malice, shall not be subject to civil liability for providing information, including filing a report, furnishing oral or written evidence, or giving testimony concerning suspected, anticipated, or completed insurance fraud to a court, the commissioner, the insurance fraud investigations unit, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, any federal, state, or county law enforcement or regulatory agency, or another insurer if the information is provided only for the purpose of preventing, investigating, or prosecuting insurance fraud, except if the person commits perjury.

IDAHO

Section 41-292(5)

In the absence of fraud or malice, no person shall be subject to civil liability for libel, slander or any other relevant tort cause of action by virtue of filing reports or furnishing other information required by this statute or required by the director of the department of insurance under the authority granted in this statute, and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against such person:

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents and employees; or

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insuranceacts furnished to or received from other persons subject to theprovisions of this chapter; or

For any such information furnished in reports to the departmentof insurance frauds bureau, national association of insurancecommissioners, national insurance crime bureau or any organizationestablished to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance acts, theiragents, employees or designees, nor shall the director or anyemployee of the department of insurance frauds bureau, actingwithout malice in the absence of fraud, be subject to civilliability for libel, slander of any relevant tort and no civilcause of action of any nature shall arise against such person byvirtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to theofficial activities of the department of insurance frauds bureau.Nothing herein is intended to abrogate or modify in any way anycommon law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyedby any person.

For purposes of subsection (5) of this section, there shall exist a rebuttable presumption that the person has acted without fraud or malice.

ILLINOIS

Chapter 215

Section 215 ILCS 5/1022 – Immunity

Sec. 1022. Immunity. No cause of action in the nature or defamation, invasion of privacy or negligence shall arise against any person for disclosing personal or privileged information in accordance with the Article, nor shall such a cause of action arise against any person for furnishing personal or privileged information to an insurance institution, agent or insurance-support organization; provided, however, this Section shall provide no immunity for disclosing or furnishing false information with malice or willful intent to injure any person.

INDIANA

Title 27. Insurance

Article 1. Department Of Insurance

Chapter 3. General Powers And Duties Of The Department 27-1-3-22 Fraudulent insurance act; definition; liability - Sec. 22.

(c) A person who acts without malice, fraudulent intent, or bad faith is not subject to civil liability for filing a report or furnishing, orally or in writing, other information concerning a suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent insurance act if the report or other information is provided to or received from any of the following:

(1) The department or an agent, an employee, or a designee of the department. (2) Law enforcement officials or an agent or employee of a lawenforcement official.

(3) The National Association of Insurance Commissioners.(4) Any agency or bureau of federal or state governmentestablished to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance acts.(5) Any other organization established to detect and preventfraudulent insurance acts.

(6) An agent, an employee, or a designee of an entity referred to in subdivisions (3) through (5).

(d) This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity.

IOWA

Title Xiii. Commerce

Subtitle 1. Insurance And Related Regulation

Chapter 507e. Insurance Fraud

507E.7. Immunity from liability

1. A person acting without malice, fraudulent intent, or bad faith is not liable civilly as a result of filing a report or furnishing, orally or in writing, other information concerning alleged acts in violation of this chapter, if the report or information is provided to or received from any of the following:

a. Law enforcement officials, their agents and employees.

b. The national association of insurance commissioners, theinsurance division, a federal or state governmental agency orbureau established to detect and prevent fraudulent insuranceacts, or any other organization established for such purpose, andtheir agents, employees, or designees.

c. An authorized representative of an insurer.

2. This section does not affect in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity applicable to such person or entity. 3. A person or entity against whom an action is brought for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, where the action involves acts subject to immunity under this section and is not substantially justified, is entitled to an award of court costs and reasonable attorney fees. For purposes of this section, an action is "substantially justified" if it had a reasonable basis in law or fact at the time that it was initiated.

KANSAS

Section 40-2, 119

Same; immunity from civil liability for certain persons. In the absence of fraud, bad faith or malice, no person shall be subject to civil liability for libel, slander or any other relevant tort cause of action.

For filing reports or furnishing other information required by chapter 40 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated or required by the commissioner under the authority granted in chapter 40 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated;

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insuranceacts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials,their agents and employees;

For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insuranceacts furnished to or received from other persons subject to theprovisions of chapter 40 of the Kansas Statutes Annotated;

For any such information furnished in reports to the insurancedepartment, national association of insurance commissioners or anyorganization established to detect or prevent fraudulent insuranceacts, their agents, employees or designees;

For the publication of any report or bulletin related to theofficial activities of the insurance department by thecommissioner or any employee of the insurance department. Nothingherein is intended to abrogate or modify in any way any common lawor statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by anyperson.

KENTUCKY

Title Xxv. Business And Financial Institutions

Chapter 304. Insurance Code

Subtitle 47. Insurance Fraud

304.47-060 IMMUNITY OF INFORMANT AND OF DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES;

DOCUMENTS NOT OPEN TO INSPECTION

(1) In the absence of malice, fraud, or gross negligence, a person shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort by virtue of filing reports or furnishing other information required by this chapter or requested by the Division of Insurance Fraud Investigation or its authorized representative. No civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against the person:

(a) For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents, or employees;

(b) For any information relating to suspected fraudulentinsurance acts furnished to or received from other persons subjectto the provisions of this subtitle, including those designated byKRS 304.47-080;

(c) For any information furnished to or received from theDepartment of Workers' Claims, its agents, or employees; or

(d) For any information furnished in reports to thecommissioner or the National Association of InsuranceCommissioners.

(2) The commissioner or any employee or agent of the Department of Insurance shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort. No civil cause of action shall exist against these persons by virtue of the execution of official activities or duties of the commissioner or the division or by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities or duties of the commissioner.

(3) This subtitle shall not abrogate or modify any common law or statutory privilege or immunity enjoyed by any person.

(4) The papers, documents, reports, or evidence relative to the subject of an investigation under this subtitle shall not be subject to public inspection for so long as the commissioner deems reasonably necessary to complete the investigation, to protect the person investigated from unwarranted injury, or to be in the public interest. Further, the papers, documents, reports, or evidence relative to the investigations shall not be subject to subpoena until opened for public inspection by the commissioner, unless the commissioner consents, or until, after notice to the commissioner and a hearing, a court of competent jurisdiction determines the commissioner would not be unnecessarily hindered by a subpoena. The commissioner or his employees or agents shall not be subject to subpoena in civil actions by any court of this state to testify concerning any matter of which they have knowledge pursuant to pending investigations of fraudulent insurance acts.

LOUISIANA

Louisiana Revised Statutes

Title 40. Public Health And Safety

Chapter 6. Department Of Public Safety

Part Iii. State Police

Subpart B. Insurance Fraud Investigation Unit

ß 1425. Receipt of information; immunity from liability

A. Any insurer providing information to an authorized representative of the unit pursuant to this Subpart shall have the right to request relevant information and receive the information requested within thirty days.

B. There shall be no cause of action in the nature of defamation, libel, slander, invasion of privacy, negligence, or any other cause of action against any person furnishing information concerning any suspected, anticipated, or completed criminal or fraudulent insurance act as described in this Subpart which involve any type of insurance as defined in R.S. 22:6. This immunity from liability shall apply when the information is provided to or received from a person employed by or authorized by an insurer whose activities include the investigation or reporting of suspected fraudulent insurance acts. The immunity shall apply to furnishing, disclosing, or requesting information on such suspected fraudulent insurance acts to or from the unit as to a person employed by or authorized by other insurers or insurer organizations acting in the same capacity including the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, another insurer, any federal or state governmental entity established for the purposes of detecting and preventing insurance fraud, or the National Insurance Crime Bureau.

C. No insurer, its officers or employees, or insurance professional, nor any other person shall be subject to such cause of action for cooperating with or furnishing evidence or information regarding any suspected criminal violation to the unit. D. This Section shall not provide immunity for those disclosing or furnishing false information with actual malice or willful intent to injure any person.

E. This Section shall not abrogate or modify in any way jurisprudential or statutory privileges or immunities heretofore enjoyed by any person or entity described in this Section, nor shall it authorize the unit to make public insurance company records which are proprietary in nature.

MAINE

Section 2187(5)

In the absence of fraud, malice or bad faith, any person, including, but not limited to, an insurer or authorized agency, that furnished information relating to suspected, anticipated or completed fraudulent insurance acts is not liable for any damages in any civil action for furnishing the information if that information is furnished to or received from an authorized agency. Nothing in this subsection is intended to abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity previously enjoyed by any person.

MARYLAND

Section 27-802 (c)

A person is not subject to civil liability for a cause of action by virtue of reporting suspected insurance fraud if:

the report was made to the Commissioner, Fraud Division, or an appropriate federal, State, or local law enforcement authority; and the person that reported the suspected insurance fraud acted ingood faith when making the report.

Code Of 1957

Article 38a. Fires And Investigations.

Insurers -- Disclosure Of Arson Investigation Reports

s 57 Disclosure of information concerning fire loss investigation.

(d) Immunity from civil or criminal liability. -- (1) In the absence of fraud no insurance company, or person who furnishes information on its behalf, is subject to criminal prosecution for any oral or written statement made or any other action taken that is necessary to supply information required pursuant to this section. (2) An insurance company, or a person who furnishes information on its behalf, shall have the immunity from liability described under s 5-409 of the Courts and Judicial Proceedings Article.

MASSACHUSETTS

Chapter 175I Section 21

No cause of action in the nature of defamation, invasion of privacy or negligence shall arise against any person for disclosing personal or privileged information in accordance with this chapter; provided, however, this section shall provide no immunity:

for any person who discloses false information with malice or willful intent to injure any person; or

for any person who misidentifies an individual as the subjectof information and who discloses such misidentified information toothers.

MICHIGAN

Chapter 500. Insurance Code Of 1956

The Insurance Code Of 1956

Chapter 45. Insurance Fraud

500.4509. Report of information concerning insurance fraud, lack of liability; exceptions; civil liability; publication of reports relating to entity's official activities; common law or statutory privileges or immunities

Sec. 4509. (1) A person acting without malice is not subject to liability for filing a report or requesting or furnishing orally or in writing other information concerning suspected or completed insurance fraud, if the reports or information are provided to or received from the insurance bureau, the national association of insurance commissioners, any federal, state, or governmental agency established to detect and prevent insurance fraud, as well as any other organization, and their agents, employees, or designees, unless that person knows that the report or other information contains false information pertaining to any material fact or thing.

(2) In a prosecution for perjury or insurance fraud, and in the absence of malice, an insurer, or any officer, employee, or agent of an insurer, or any private person who cooperates with, furnishes evidence, or provides or receives information regarding suspected insurance fraud to or from an authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any organization, or who complies with an order issued by a court acting in response to a request by any of these entities to provide evidence or testimony, is not subject to civil liability with respect to any act concerning the suspected insurance fraud that the person testifies to or produces relevant matter, unless that person knows that the evidence, information, testimony, or matter contains false information pertaining to any material fact or thing.

(3) In the absence of malice, an insurer, or any officer, employee, or agent of an insurer, or any person who cooperates with, furnishes evidence, or provides information regarding suspected insurance fraud to an authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any organization, or who complies with an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction acting in response to a request by any of these entities to furnish evidence or provide testimony, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other tort, and a civil cause of action of any nature does not exist against the person, for filing a report, providing information, or otherwise cooperating with an investigation or examination of any of these entities, unless that person knows that the evidence, information, testimony, or matter contains false information pertaining to any material fact or thing.

(4) The authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any organization, and any employee or agent of any of these entities, when acting without malice, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other tort, and a civil cause of action of any nature does not exist against the person for official activities or duties of the entity because of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the entity's official activities or duties, unless the report or bulletin contains false information concerning any material fact or thing and the authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, an organization, or an employee or agent of these entities knows that the information is false.

(5) This section does not abrogate or modify in any way common law or statutory privilege or immunity otherwise available to any person or entity.

MINNESOTA

Labor, Industry

Chapter 176. Workers' Compensation

176.861. Disclosure of information

Subdivision 1. Insurance information. The commissioner may, in writing, require an insurance company to release to the commissioner any or all relevant information or evidence the commissioner deems important which the company may have in its possession relating to a workers' compensation claim including material relating to the investigation of the claim, statements of any person, and any other evidence relevant to the investigation. The writing from the commissioner requiring release of the information shall contain a statement that the commissioner has reason to believe a crime or civil fraud has been committed with respect to an insurance claim, payment, or application.

Subd. 2. Information released to authorized persons. If an insurance company has evidence that a claim may be fraudulent, the company shall, in writing, notify the commissioner and provide the commissioner with all relevant material related to the company's inquiry into the claim.

Subd. 3. Good faith immunity. An insurance company or its agent acting in its behalf and in good faith who releases oral or written information under subdivisions 1 and 2 is immune from civil or criminal liability that might otherwise be incurred or imposed. Subd. 4. Self-insurer; assigned risk plan. For the purposes of this section "insurance company" includes a self-insurer and the assigned risk plan and their agents.

Chapter 60a. General Insurance Powers

Insurance Fraud

60a.952. Disclosure Of Information

Subdivision 1. Request. After receiving a written request from an authorized person stating that the authorized person has reason to believe that a crime or civil fraud has been committed in connection with an insurance claim, payment, or application, an insurer must release to the authorized person all relevant information in the insurer's possession.

Subd. 2. Notification by insurer required. If an insurer has reason to believe that an insurance fraud has been committed, the insurer shall, in writing, notify an authorized person and provide the authorized person with all relevant information in the insurer's possession. It is sufficient for the purpose of this subdivision if an insurer notifies and provides relevant information to one authorized person. The insurer may also release relevant information to any person authorized to receive the information under section 72A.502, subdivision 2.

Subd. 3. Immunity from liability. If insurers, agents acting on the insurers' behalf, or authorized persons release information in good faith under this section, whether orally or in writing, they are immune from any liability, civil or criminal, for the release or reporting of the information.

MISSOURI

Section 375.993(2)

No insurer, employees or agents of any insurer, or any other person acting without malice, shall be subject to civil liability for libel or otherwise by virtue of the filing of reports or furnishing other information required by sections 375.991 to 375.994 or required by the department of insurance as a result of the authority granted in sections 375.991 to 375.994.

MONTANA

Title 33. Insurance And Insurance Companies

Chapter 1. Administration And General Provisions

Part 12. Insurance Fraud Protection

33-1-1210. Immunity from liability

(1) In the absence of malice, an insurer, an officer, employee, or producer of the insurer, an independent adjuster, an administrator, a consultant, or any private person is not subject to civil liability for filing reports, providing information, or otherwise cooperating with an investigation or examination of insurance fraud conducted by the commissioner.

(2) A person listed in subsection (1) receives immunity if the person:

(a) cooperates with, furnishes evidence to, or provides information regarding any suspected insurance fraud to the commissioner, the national association of insurance commissioners, any nonprofit organization established to detect and prevent insurance fraud, or other insurer or producer; or

(b) complies with an order issued by a court of competentjurisdiction acting in response to a request by the commissionerto furnish evidence or provide testimony.

NEBRASKA

Chapter 44. Insurance

Article 66. Insurance Fraud.

ß 44-6605. Immunity from civil liability.

(1) Any person or entity, including the department, an insurer, or a person employed by or authorized by an insurer whose activities include the investigation of or reporting of suspected insurance fraud, acting without malice, fraudulent intent, or bad faith shall be immune from civil liability for furnishing any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts to:

(a) The director or his or her agents or employees;

(b) Law enforcement officials or their agents or employees;(c) The Nebraska Workers' Compensation Court or its agents oremployees;

(d) Persons or entities subject to Chapter 44 or their agentsor employees; or(e) The National Association of Insurance Commissioners or anyorganization established to detect and prevent fraudulentinsurance acts or its agents, employees, or designees.

(2) This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common-law or statutory privilege or immunity.

NEVADA

Title 57. Insurance.

Chapter 679b. Commissioner Of Insurance.

679B.157 Liability for disclosure of information on fraudulent claim or suspicious fire.

An insurer, employee or representative of an insurer, official of an investigative or law enforcement agency, employee of the division or the commissioner is not subject to a criminal penalty or subject to civil liability for libel, slander or any similar cause of action in tort if he, without malice, discloses information on a fraudulent claim or suspicious fire.

NEW HAMPSHIRE

Section 417:28

Any company which believes that an insurance fraud has been committed shall, within 60 days of forming such belief, send to the unit, on a form prescribed by the unit, the information requested and such additional information relative to the claim and other parties claiming loss or damage because of the claim as the unit may require. The unit shall review such report and select such claims as, in its judgment, warrant further investigations. In the absence of fraud or malice, no public official or insurance company or person who furnishes information on behalf of the insurance company shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for any oral or written statement made or any other action taken that is necessary to supply information required pursuant to this section.

NEW JERSEY

Title 17. Corporations And Institutions For Finance And Insurance

Subtitle 3. Insurance

Part 1a. Insurance Fraud Prevention

Chapter 33a. New Jersey Insurance Fraud Prevention Act

17:33A-9. Report of alleged violations; investigation; civil liability; records

a. Any person who believes that a violation of this act has been or is being made shall notify the division [FN1] immediately after discovery of the alleged violation of this act and shall send to the division, on a form and in a manner prescribed by the commissioner, the information requested and such additional information relative to the alleged violation as the division may require. The division shall review the reports and select those alleged violations as may require further investigation. It shall then cause an independent examination or evaluation of the facts surrounding the alleged violation to be made to determine the extent, if any, to which fraud, deceit, or intentional misrepresentation of any kind exists.

b. No person shall be subject to civil liability for libel, violation of privacy or otherwise by virtue of the filing of reports or furnishing of other information, in good faith and without malice, required by this section or required by the division as a result of the authority conferred upon it by law.

c. The commissioner may, by regulation, require insurance companies licensed to do business in this State to keep such records and other information as he deems necessary for the effective enforcement of this act.

NEW MEXICO

Chapter 59a. Insurance Code

Article 16c. Insurance Fraud Act

59A-16C-7 Immunity from civil liability; private insurance fraud reports and enforcement actions.

A. The provisions of Section 59A-4-21 NMSA 1978 regarding immunity from civil liability for enforcement actions performed in good faith by the superintendent, his authorized representatives and examiners shall apply to the Insurance Fraud Act [this article].

B. Except when a person intentionally communicates false information he actually believes to be false, a person shall not be subject to liability by virtue of reporting or furnishing, orally or in writing, information concerning suspected, anticipated or completed insurance fraud acts when the report or information is provided to:

(1) the department of insurance, the superintendent or law enforcement agencies, their officials, agents or employees;

(2) the national association of insurance commissioners, afederal or state governmental agency or office established todetect and prevent insurance fraud, any other organizationestablished for the same purpose and their agents, employees ordesignees; or

(3) the anti-fraud unit of an insurer.

C. A person identified in Subsection B of this section or any of the person's officers, employees or agents when performing authorized activities, including the publication or dissemination of any related bulletin or reports, shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander or any other relevant tort or a civil cause of action of any nature, except if the person, officer, employee or agent intentionally communicates false information he actually believes to be false.

D. This section shall not abrogate or modify in any way any privilege or immunity recognized by common law or statute. E. The court shall award attorney fees and costs to any person identified in Subsection B of this section or any of that person's officers, employees or agents who is a prevailing party in a civil cause of action against him for libel, slander or any other relevant tort arising out of conduct pursuant to the Insurance Fraud Act if the party bringing the action was not substantially justified in bringing such action. For the purposes of this subsection, "substantially justified" means having a reasonable basis in law or fact at the time a proceeding was initiated.

F. The relief provided in this section is in addition to remedies otherwise available against the same conduct under the common law or other laws of this state.

NEW YORK

Section 406

In the absence of fraud or bad faith, no person shall be subject to civil liability, and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against such person (i) for any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance transactions furnished to law enforcement officials, their agents and employees; and (ii) for any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance transactions furnished to other persons subject to the provisions of this chapter; and (iii) for any such information furnished in reports to the insurance frauds bureau, its agents or employees or the workers’ compensation fraud inspector general, its agents or employees. Nor shall the superintendent or any employee of the insurance frauds bureau, in the absence of fraud or bad faith, be subject to civil liability and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against them by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities of the insurance frauds bureau. Nothing herein is intended to abrogate or modify in any way any common law privilege of immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person.

NORTH CAROLINA

Chapter 58. Insurance.

Article 2. Commissioner Of Insurance.

ß 58-2-160 Reporting and investigation of insurance and reinsurance fraud and the financial condition of licensees; immunity from liability.

(a) As used in this section, "Commissioner" includes an employee, agent, or designee of the Commissioner. A person, or an employee or agent of that person, acting without actual malice, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other cause of action by virtue of furnishing to the Commissioner under the requirements of law or at the direction of the Commissioner reports or other information relating to (i) any known or suspected fraudulent insurance or reinsurance claim, transaction, or act or (ii) the financial condition of any licensee. In the absence of actual malice, members of the NAIC, their duly authorized committees, subcommittees, task forces, delegates, and employees, and all other persons charged with the responsibility of collecting, reviewing, analyzing, or disseminating the information developed from filings of financial statements or examinations of licensees are not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other cause of action by virtue of their collection, review, analysis, or dissemination of the data and information collected from such filings or examinations.

(b) The Commissioner, acting without actual malice, is not subject to civil liability for libel or slander by virtue of an investigation of (i) any known or suspected fraudulent insurance or reinsurance claim, transaction, or act or (ii) the financial condition of any licensee; or by virtue of the publication or dissemination of any official report related to any such investigation, which report is published or disseminated in the absence of fraud, bad faith, or actual malice on the part of the Commissioner. The Commissioner is not subject to civil liability in relation to the collecting, reviewing, analyzing, or dissemination of information that is developed by the NAIC from the filing of financial statements with the NAIC or from the examination of insurers by the NAIC and that is communicated to the Commissioner, including any investigation or publication or dissemination of any report or other information in relation thereto, which report is published or disseminated in the absence of fraud, bad faith, negligence, or actual malice on the part of the Commissioner.

(c) During the course of an investigation of (i) a known or suspected fraudulent insurance or reinsurance claim, transaction, or act or (ii) the financial condition of any licensee, the Commissioner may request any person to furnish copies of any information relative to the (i) known or suspected claim, transaction, or act or (ii) financial condition of the licensee. The person shall release the information requested and cooperate with the Commissioner pursuant to this section.

Section 58-39-110

No cause of action in the nature of defamation, invasion of privacy, or negligence shall arise against any person for disclosing personal or privileged information in accordance with this Article, nor shall such a cause of action arise against any person for furnishing personal or privileged information to an insurance institution, agent, or insurance-support organization: Provided, however, this section shall provide no immunity for disclosing or furnishing false information with malice or willful intent to injure any person.

NORTH DAKOTA

Title 26.1. Insurance

Chapter 26.1-02.1. Insurance Fraud

26.1-02.1-04 Immunity.

1. A person when acting without malice is not subject to liability by virtue of filing reports, or furnishing orally or in writing other information concerning any suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent insurance act, when the reports or information are provided to or received from any authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any other not-for-profit organization established to detect and prevent insurance fraud, and their agents, employees, or designees.

2. Except in prosecution for perjury or insurance fraud, and in the absence of malice, an insurer, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, or any licensed producer or private person who cooperates with, furnishes evidence, or provides or receives information regarding any suspected fraudulent insurance act to or from an authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any not-for-profit organization established to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance acts or who complies with an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction acting in response to a request by any of these entities to provide evidence or testimony is not subject to a criminal proceeding or to a civil penalty with respect to any act concerning which the person testifies to or produces relevant matter.

3. In the absence of malice, an insurer, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, or any licensed producer or private person who cooperates with, furnishes evidence, or provides information regarding any suspected fraudulent insurance act to an authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any not-for-profit organization established to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance acts or who complies with an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction acting in response to a request by any of these entities to furnish evidence or provide testimony, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and no civil cause of action of any nature exists against the person, for filing reports, providing information, or otherwise cooperating with an investigation or examination of any of these entities.

4. The authorized agency, the national association of insurance commissioners, or any not-for-profit organization established to detect and prevent fraudulent insurance acts and any employee or agent of any of these entities, when acting without malice is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and no civil cause of action of any nature will lie against the person by virtue of the execution of official activities or duties of the entity by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities or duties of the entity.

5. This section does not abrogate or modify in any way common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person or entity.

OHIO

Title Xxxix. Insurance

Chapter 3999. Crimes Relating To Insurance

Miscellaneous Provisions

3999.31 Immunity For Persons Providing Or Receiving Information

Concerning Fraudulent Acts

(B) In the absence of fraud or bad faith, no person is subject to liability for damages or any other civil liability for libel, slander, or other relevant tort cause of action by virtue of filing reports, without malice, or furnishing other information, without malice, required under Title XXXIX of the Revised Code or required by the superintendent under authority granted by that title, and no liability for damages or any other civil cause of action of any nature arises against a person for providing or receiving information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts that is furnished to or received from any of the following:

(1) Any law enforcement official, or any agent or employee of such official; (2) Other persons subject to the provisions of Title XXXIX ofthe Revised Code;

(3) The superintendent and any designee of the superintendent,any insurance frauds bureau, the national association of insurancecommissioners, or any organization established to detect andprevent fraudulent insurance acts;

(4) Any other person involved in the detection or prevention offraudulent insurance acts.

(C) The superintendent and any designee of the superintendent, or any insurance frauds bureau, in the absence of malice, fraud, or bad faith, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or other relevant tort and no civil cause of action of any nature arises against such a person by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities of the superintendent or of any insurance frauds bureau in relation to fraudulent insurance acts.

(D) Nothing in this section is intended to abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity enjoyed by any person.

(E) Nothing in this section shall be construed to negate, supersede, or otherwise affect section 3911.06, 3911.07, 3915.05, or 3923.04 of the Revised Code.

(F) This section may be cited as the conference of insurance legislators/national association of insurance commissioners model immunity act.

OKLAHOMA

Section 2(C) of House Bill 1502, enacted 1999

C. In the absence of fraud, bad faith, reckless disregard for the truth, or actual malice, no person, insurer, or agent of an insurer shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for communication, publication, or any other action taken to supply information about suspected insurance fraud to the Insurance Fraud Unit of the Office of the Attorney General or any other agency involved in the investigation or prosecution of suspected fraud.

Section 6(B) of House Bill 1502, enacted 1999

B. In the absence of fraud, bad faith, reckless disregard for the truth, or actual malice, no person, insurer, or agent of an insurer shall be liable for damages in a civil action or subject to criminal prosecution for communication, publication, or any other action taken to supply information about suspected insurance fraud to the Anti-Fraud Division of the Insurance Department or any other agency involved in the investigation or prosecution of suspected insurance fraud.

OREGON

Section 731.737(2)

A person acting without malice, fraudulent intent or bad faith is not subject to liability by virtue of filing reports or furnishing information regarding any activity described in subsection (3) of this section with or to any person or other entity described in subsection (1) of this section.

PENNSYLVANIA

Title 40. Insurance

Chapter 2. Insurance Companies

Article Iii. General Provisions Relating To Insurance Companies,

Associations, And Exchanges

ß 474.1. Immunity from liability

(a) In the absence of fraud or bad faith, no person or his employees or agents shall be subject to civil liability and no civil cause of action shall arise against any of them for any of the following:

(1) Information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished by them to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents and employees.

(2) Information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance actsfurnished by them to or received from other persons subject to theprovisions of this act.

(3) Information furnished by them in reports to the InsuranceDepartment, National Association of Insurance Commissioners oranother organization established to detect and prevent fraudulentinsurance acts, their agents, employees or designees.

(b) The Insurance Commissioner and employees of the Insurance Department, in the absence of fraud or bad faith, shall not be subject to civil liability. No civil cause of action shall arise against any of them by virtue of the publication of a report or bulletin related to the official activities of the Insurance Department.

(c) Nothing in this section is intended to abrogate or modify a common law or statutory immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person.

(d) As used in this section the following words and phrases shall have the meanings given to them in this subsection:

"Absence of bad faith" means without serious doubt that the information furnished or received, or the report or bulletin published, is not true.

"Absence of fraud" means without knowledge that the information furnished or received, or the report or bulletin published, is not true.

"Fraudulent insurance act" means an act committed by a person who, knowingly and with intent to defraud, presents, causes to be presented or prepares with knowledge or belief that it will be presented to or by an insurer, purported insurer or broker, or an agent of an insurer, purported insurer or broker, a written statement as part or in support of an application for the issuance or rating of an insurance policy for commercial insurance, or a claim for payment or other benefit pursuant to an insurance policy for commercial or personal insurance which he knows to contain materially false information concerning a fact material to the statement or claim or to conceal, for the purpose of misleading, information concerning a fact material to the statement or claim.

RHODE ISLAND

Title 27. Insurance

Chapter 49. Motor Vehicle Theft And Motor Vehicle Insurance Fraud Reporting -- Immunity Act

27-49-5 Immunity. No insurer, or agent authorized by an insurer to act on its behalf, authorized governmental agency or their respective employees shall be subject to any civil or criminal liability in a cause of action of any kind for releasing or receiving any factually accurate information pursuant to ß 27- 49-3 or ß 27-49-4. Nothing herein is intended to or does in any way or manner abrogate or lessen the common and statutory law, privileges and immunities of an insurer, agent authorized by an insurer to act on its behalf, or authorized governmental agency or any of their respective employees.

27-49-5.1 Insurer disclosure -- Qualified immunity.

(a) An insurer and an agent authorized to act on its behalf, upon written request, may provide to another insurer or insurance industry related organization whose purpose it is to investigate or assist in the prosecution of motor vehicle insurance fraud any and all relevant factually accurate information which the insurer may possess as to any motor vehicle claim or other information which may relate to whether a motor vehicle theft or motor vehicle insurance fraud has occurred.

(b) No insurer, organization or agent authorized to act under subsection (a) shall be subjected to any civil or criminal liability in any cause of action of any kind for releasing or receiving any relevant factually accurate information pursuant to subsection (a) if it acts in good faith and with due care solely for the purpose of facilitating the discovery and prosecution of the theft or fraud.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Section 38-55-580

(A) A person, insurer or authorized agency, when acting without malice or in good faith, is immune from any liability arising out of filing reports, cooperating with investigations by any authorized agency, or furnishing other information, whether written or oral, and whether in response to a request by an authorized agency upon their own initiative, concerning any suspected, anticipated, or completed false statement or misrepresentation when such reports or information are provided to or received by any authorized agency.

(B) Nothing herein abrogates or modifies in any way common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person, insurer, or authorized agency.

(C) Nothing herein limits the liability of any person or insurer who, with malice or in bad faith, makes a report of suspected fraud under the provisions of this article.

In addition to the immunity granted in this section, persons identified as designated employees whose responsibilities include the investigation and disposition of claims relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts may share information relating to persons suspected of committing fraudulent insurance acts with other designated employees employed by the same or other insurers whose responsibilities include the investigation and disposition of claims relating to fraudulent insurance acts, provided the department has been given written notice of the names and job titles of these designated employees prior to any designated employee sharing information. Unless the designated employees of the insurer act in bad faith or reckless disregard for the rights of any insured, neither the insurer nor its designated employees are civilly liable for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and a civil action does not arise against the insurer or its designated employees:

for any information related to suspected fraudulent insurance acts provided to an insurer; or

for information related to suspected fraudulent insurance actsprovided to the National Insurance Crime Bureau or the NationalAssociation of Insurance Commissioners.

Provided, however, that the qualified immunity against civil liability conferred on any insurer or its designated employees shall be forfeited with respect to the exchange or publication of any defamatory information with third persons not expressly authorized by subsection (D) to share in such information.

SOUTH DAKOTA

Section 13 of Senate Bill 75 enacted March, 1999, effective July 1, 1999

Any person acting in good faith is immune from civil liability for filing a report with or for furnishing any information relating to suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent insurance acts to:

(1) The Department of Commerce and Regulation and the director of insurance;

(2) Any governmental agency established to detect and preventfraud;

(3) Law enforcement officials;

(4) Department of Labor;

(5) Any insurer or insurance agent;

(6) The National Association of Insurance Commissioners; and(7) Any nonprofit organization established to detect andprevent insurance fraud, if the organization is approved by thedirector pursuant to rules promulgated by the director underChapter 1-26 setting forth the standards, criteria, and proceduresnecessary to obtain approval.

If a civil action is commenced against a person for damages related to the filing of a report or the furnishing of information under this section and the court determines that the person acted in good faith in filing the report or furnishing the information, the person filing the report or furnishing the information may recover costs or disbursements under chapter 15-17, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

If the trier of fact concludes that the person filing the report or furnishing the information was not acting in good faith, the person filing the civil action may recover costs or disbursements under chapter 15-17, including reasonable attorney’s fees. This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity.

TENNESSEE

Title 56 Insurance

Chapter 47 Workers' Compensation Fraud

56-47-111 Immunity of persons providing information.

In the absence of actual malice, no person furnishing, disclosing or requesting information pursuant to § 56-47-110 shall be subject to civil liability for libel, slander or any other cause of action arising from the furnishing, disclosing or requesting of such information. No person providing information pursuant to § 56-47-110(a) shall be subject to civil liability for any cause of action arising from the person's provision of requested information. Any person against whom any action is brought who is found to be immune from liability under this section shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney's fees and costs from the person or party who brought the action. This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person.

TEXAS

Insurance Code

Title 1. The Insurance Code Of 1951

Chapter One--The Board, Its Powers And Duties

Art. 1.10d. Insurance Fraud Unit

Immunity

Sec. 6. (a) A person acting without malice, fraudulent intent, or bad faith is not subject to liability based on filing reports or furnishing, orally or in writing, other information concerning suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent insurance acts if the reports or information are provided to:

(1) a law enforcement officer or an agent or employee of a law enforcement officer;

(2) the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, astate or federal governmental agency established to detect andprevent fraudulent insurance acts or to regulate the business ofinsurance, or an employee of that association or governmentalagency; or

(3) an authorized governmental agency or the department.

(b) A person to whom Subsection (a) of this section applies or an employee or agent of such a person when performing an authorized activity, including the publication or dissemination of any related bulletin or reports, and while acting without malice, fraudulent intent, or bad faith, is not subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and a civil cause of action of any nature may not exist against that person based on those activities.

(c) This section does not affect or modify any common law or statutory privilege or immunity.

(d) A person to whom Subsection (a) of this section applies or an employee or agent of such a person is entitled to an award of attorney's fees and costs if the person, employee, or agent is a prevailing party in a civil cause of action for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort based on activities performed under Subsection (a) of this section.

UTAH

Title 31a. Insurance Code

Chapter 31. Insurance Fraud Act

Current Through End Of 1999 General Session

31A-31-105 Immunity.

(1) A person, insurer, or authorized agency is immune from civil action, civil penalty, or damages when in good faith that person, insurer, or authorized agency cooperates with, furnishes evidence, provides or receives information regarding suspected insurance fraud to or received from:

(a) the department or any division of the department;

(b) any federal, state, or government agency established todetect and prevent insurance fraud; or

(c) any agent, employee, or designee of an entity listed inSubsection (1)(a) or (1)(b).

(2) A person, insurer, or authorized agency is immune from civil action, civil penalty, or damages if that person, insurer, or authorized agency complies in good faith with a court order to provide evidence or testimony requested by the entities described in Subsections (1)(a) through (1)(c).

(3) This section does not abrogate or modify common law or statutory rights, privileges, or immunities enjoyed by any person or entity.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provision in this section, a person, insurer, or service provider is not immune from civil action, civil penalty or damages under this section if that person commits the fraudulent insurance act that is the subject of the information.

VIRGINIA

Section 52-41

(A) Any insurer providing information to an authorized representative of the Department pursuant to Sec. 52-38 or pursuant to subdivision A 6 of Sec. 38.2-613 shall have the right to request relevant information and receive, within thirty days, the information requested.

(B) No cause of action in the nature of defamation, invasion of privacy, or negligence shall arise against any person furnishing information concerning any suspected, anticipated or completed criminal violation when the information is provided to or received from the Department, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, another insurer, any federal or state governmental entity established for the purposes of detecting and preventing insurance fraud, or the National Insurance Crime Bureau.

(C) No insurer, its officers or employees, insurance professional or any other person shall be subject to such cause of action for cooperating with, or furnishing evidence or information regarding any suspected criminal violation to the Department.

(D) This section shall not provide immunity for those disclosing or furnishing false information with malice or willful intent to injure the person.

This section does not abrogate or modify in any way common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person or entity, nor does it authorize the Department to make public insurance company records which are proprietary in nature.

WASHINGTON

Title 48. Insurance

Chapter 48.50. Insurance Fraud Reporting Immunity Act

48.50.070. Immunity from liability for releasing information

Any licensed insurance agent, any licensed insurance broker, or any insurer or person acting in the insurer's behalf or any authorized agency which releases information, whether oral or written, under RCW 48.50.030, 48.50.040, 48.50.050, or *48.50.060 shall be immune from liability in any civil or criminal action, suit, or prosecution arising from the release of the information, unless actual malice on the part of the agent, broker, insurer, or authorized agency against the insured is shown.

WEST VIRGINIA

Chapter 33. Insurance.

Article 41. Privileges And Immunity.

Current Through End Of 1999 2nd Ex.Sess. s 33-41-3 Privileges and immunity.

(a) Any person who makes a report or furnishes information, written or oral, concerning suspected, anticipated or completed insurance fraud to an insurer or authorized agency shall be entitled to those privileges and immunities heretofore existing under the common or statutory law of this state, as well as the immunity established herein.

(b) In the absence of fraud, malice or bad faith, no person or agent, employee or designee of such person shall be subject to civil liability of any nature arising out of such person's providing any information related to suspected, anticipated or completed insurance fraud to any insurer or authorized agency.

(c) Nothing herein shall be construed to limit, abrogate or modify existing statutes or case law applicable to the duties or liabilities of insurers regarding bad faith or unfair trade practices.

WISCONSIN

Miscellaneous Actions, Proceedings And Procedure

Chapter 895. Miscellaneous General Provisions

895.486. Civil immunity exemption; reports of insurance fraud

(2) Any person who, absent malice, files a report with or furnishes information concerning suspected, anticipated, or completed insurance fraud is immune from civil liability for his or her acts or omissions in filing the report or furnishing the information to any of the following or to their agents, employees or designees:

(a) The office of the commissioner of insurance.

(b) A law enforcement officer.

(c) The National Association of Insurance Commissioners.

(d) Any governmental agency established to detect and preventinsurance fraud.

(e) Any nonprofit organization established to detect andprevent insurance fraud.

(f) Any insurer or authorized representative of an insurer.

(3) Any information furnished by an insurer in response to a report or information furnished under sub. (2) is confidential and may be made public only if required in a civil or criminal action.

(4) If a civil action is commenced against a person for damages related to the filing of a report or the furnishing of information under sub. (2) and the court determines that the person is immune from civil liability for his or her acts or omissions in filing the report or furnishing the information, the person filing the report or furnishing the information shall recover costs under ch. 814 and, notwithstanding s. 814.04(1), reasonable attorney fees.

UNITED STATES

Title II SubTitle A — HIPAA -1996

Section 1128C(a)(3)(B)(iii)

Qualified Immunity For Providing Information

The provisions of section 1157(a) (relating to limitation on liability) shall apply to a person providing information to the Secretary or the Attorney General in conjunction with their performance duties under this section. Note: Congress enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. One of the provisions of that act added greater authority for combating health insurance fraud by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General. Title II of the Act establishes the procedures for the coordination of effort to fight health care fraud. As part of that section, the law grants qualified immunity for the reporting information concerning health care fraud to either the Secretary of HHS or the Attorney General.